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Base sequence of DNA-------->Amino Acid sequence of polypeptide-------->Shape of protein---------->Function of protein!!!!!

Biochemistry!

Unit 2 Review Sheet

This is not designed to replace your class notes and/or chapter outlines!!
although it will certainly help

Get answers to Regents Biochemistry review questions here

Chapter 3 – Basic chemistry
      Organic vs. inorganic
      Most common elements in living things - CHON
      Compound vs. element
      Atoms vs. molecules
      Symbols
      Make up of an atom – protons neutrons electrons and where you find them
      Formulas – chemical/molecular, structural
      Covalent bonds

Chapter 4 – Important Biomolecules --> for a copy of the macromolecule note sheets we did in class click here
                      More Macromolecule review info     

Carbohydrates – sugars and starches
                General molecular formula – ratio of hydrogen to oxygen
                Ring structure
                Mono-, di-, and polysaccharides
                Examples of polysaccharides
      Lipids – fats, oils and waxes
                Solid/liquid at room temp.
                Fatty acids – saturated vs. unsaturated
                         Carboxyl group and hydrocarbon chain
               Glycerol
               1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids = 1 lipid
      Nucleic acids
               Nucleotide – Phosphate, sugar and nitrogenous base
               The four bases – sequence codes for Amino Acid sequence in proteins
               DNA/RNA
               Double helix
      Protein
               General
                          Contain nitrogen
                          Usually very large
                          Structural, hormones, antibodies, and enzymes
               Amino acids
                          Building blocks of proteins
                          Carboxyl, amino and functional groups
                          20 different AA’s
                          Amino acid, di- and polypeptide
                                   Structure
                                   Peptide bond

                                             SHAPE IS EVERYTHING!!!!!!

Base
sequence ====> (DNA)     
Amino acid sequence ====> (polypeptide) Protein shape ===> Protein function

Base sequence of DNA-------->Amino Acid sequence of polypeptide-------->Shape of protein---------->Function of protein!!!!!              

  Enzymes
                        Control metabolism
                        Organic catalysts ==>don't get used up in reactions
                        Names often end in –ase and indicate substrate
                        Enzyme action dependent on shape of enzyme
                        Active site
                        Lock and key vs. induced fit
                        Factors that effect enzyme rate
                                      pH, temp and concentration

      Building and breaking reactions
                Dehydration synthesis vs. hydrolysis
                Enzyme driven

Structures you need to be able to recognize
               Mono-, di- and polysaccharides
               Fatty acids both saturated and unsaturated
               Glycerol
               Lipids
               Amino acids
               polypeptides
               DNA
               Carboxyl group (COOH)
               Amine group (NH2 )
               Hydrocarbon chain
               Hydroxy group (OH)

Molecular formulas you need to be able to recognize
              Carbohydrate
              Amino acid (has N)
              Carboxyl group
              Amine group
              hydroxy group

Important biochemical reactions here

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